In the beginning, there was the egg. Then fictional people started eating that from different ends, and the terms of "little endians" and "Big Endians" was born.
Computer architectures (mostly) come with one of either byte order: MSB first or LSB first. The two are incompatible of course, and many a bug was introduced trying to convert between the two (or, more common: failing to do so). The two byte orders were termed Big Endian and little endian, because that hilarious naming scheme at least gives us something to laugh about while contemplating throwing it all away and considering a future as, I don't know, a strawberry plant.
Back in the mullet-infested 80s when the X11 protocol was designed both little endian and big endian were common enough. And back then running the X server on a different host than the client was common too - the X terminals back then had less processing power than a smart toilet seat today so the cpu-intensive clients were running on some mainfraime. To avoid overtaxing the poor mainframe already running dozens of clients for multiple users, the job of converting between the two byte orders was punted to the X server. So to this day whenever a client connects, the first byte it sends is a literal "l" or "B" to inform the server of the client's byte order. Where the byte order doesn't match the X server's byte order, the client is a "swapped client" in X server terminology and all 16, 32, and 64-bit values must be "byte-swapped" into the server's byte order. All of those values in all requests, and then again back to the client's byte order in all outgoing replies and events. Forever, till a crash do them part.
If you get one of those wrong, the number is no longer correct. And it's properly wrong too, the difference between 0x1 and 0x01000000 is rather significant.  Which has the hilarious side-effect of... well, pretty much anything. But usually it ranges from crashing the server (thus taking all other clients down in commiseration) to leaking random memory locations. The list of security issues affecting the various SProcFoo implementations (X server naming scheme for Swapped Procedure for request Foo) is so long that I'm too lazy to pull out the various security advisories and link to them. Just believe me, ok? *jedi handwave*
These days, encountering a Big Endian host is increasingly niche, letting it run an X client that connects to your local little-endian X server is even more niche . I think the only regular real-world use-case for this is running X clients on an s390x, connecting to your local intel-ish (and thus little endian) workstation. Not something most users do on a regular basis. So right now, the byte-swapping code is mainly a free attack surface that 99% of users never actually use for anything real. So... let's not do that?
I just merged a PR into the X server repo that prohibits byte-swapped clients by default. A Big Endian client connecting to an X server will fail the connection with an error message of "Prohibited client endianess, see the Xserver man page".  Thus, a whole class of future security issues avoided - yay!
For the use-cases where you do need to let Big Endian clients connect to your little endian X server, you have two options: start your X server (Xorg, Xwayland, Xnest, ...) with the +byteswappedclients commandline option. Alternatively, and this only applies for Xorg: add Option "AllowByteSwappedClients" "on" to the xorg.conf ServerFlags section. Both of these will change the default back to the original setting. Both are documented in the Xserver(1) and xorg.conf(5) man pages, respectively.
Now, there's a drawback: in the Wayland stack, the compositor is in charge of starting Xwayland which means the compositor needs to expose a way of passing +byteswappedclients to Xwayland. This is compositor-specific, bugs are filed for mutter (merged for GNOME 44), kwin and wlroots. Until those are addressed, you cannot easily change this default (short of changing /usr/bin/Xwayland into a wrapper script that passes the option through).
There's no specific plan yet which X releases this will end up in, primarily because the release cycle for X is...undefined. Probably xserver-23.0 if and when that happens. It'll probably find its way into the xwayland-23.0 release, if and when that happens. Meanwhile, distributions interested in this particular change should consider backporting it to their X server version. This has been accepted as a Fedora 38 change.
 Also, it doesn't help that much of the X server's protocol handling code was written with the attitude of "surely the client wouldn't lie about that length value"
 little-endian client to Big Endian X server is so rare that it's barely worth talking about. But suffice to say, the exact same applies, just with little and big swapped around.
 That message is unceremoniously dumped to stderr, but that bit is unfortunately a libxcb issue.