Thursday, August 9, 2018

How the 60-evdev.hwdb works

libinput made a design decision early on to use physical reference points wherever possible. So your virtual buttons are X mm high/across, the pointer movement is calculated in mm, etc. Unfortunately this exposed us to a large range of devices that don't bother to provide that information or just give us the wrong information to begin with. Patching the kernel for every device is not feasible so in 2015 the 60-evdev.hwdb was born and it has seen steady updates since. Plenty a libinput bug was fixed by just correcting the device's axis ranges or resolution. To take the magic out of the 60-evdev.hwdb, here's a blog post for your perusal, appreciation or, failing that, shaking a fist at. Note that the below is caller-agnostic, it doesn't matter what userspace stack you use to process your input events.

There are four parts that come together to fix devices: a kernel ioctl and a trifecta of udev rules hwdb entries and a udev builtin.

The kernel's EVIOCSABS ioctl

It all starts with the kernel's struct input_absinfo.

struct input_absinfo {
 __s32 value;
 __s32 minimum;
 __s32 maximum;
 __s32 fuzz;
 __s32 flat;
 __s32 resolution;
};
The three values that matter right now: minimum, maximum and resolution. The "value" is just the most recent value on this axis, ignore fuzz/flat for now. The min/max values simply specify the range of values the device will give you, the resolution how many values per mm you get. Simple example: an x axis given at min 0, max 1000 at a resolution of 10 means your devices is 100mm wide. There is no requirement for min to be 0, btw, and there's no clipping in the kernel so you may get values outside min/max. Anyway, your average touchpad looks like this in evemu-record:
#   Event type 3 (EV_ABS)
#     Event code 0 (ABS_X)
#       Value     2572
#       Min       1024
#       Max       5112
#       Fuzz         0
#       Flat         0
#       Resolution  41
#     Event code 1 (ABS_Y)
#       Value     4697
#       Min       2024
#       Max       4832
#       Fuzz         0
#       Flat         0
#       Resolution  37
This is the information returned by the EVIOCGABS ioctl (EVdev IOCtl Get ABS). It is usually run once on device init by any process handling evdev device nodes.

Because plenty of devices don't announce the correct ranges or resolution, the kernel provides the EVIOCSABS ioctl (EVdev IOCtl Set ABS). This allows overwriting the in-kernel struct with new values for min/max/fuzz/flat/resolution, processes that query the device later will get the updated ranges.

udev rules, hwdb and builtins

The kernel has no notification mechanism for updated axis ranges so the ioctl must be applied before any process opens the device. This effectively means it must be applied by a udev rule. udev rules are a bit limited in what they can do, so if we need to call an ioctl, we need to run a program. And while udev rules can do matching, the hwdb is easier to edit and maintain. So the pieces we have is: a hwdb that knows when to change (and the values), a udev program to apply the values and a udev rule to tie those two together.

In our case the rule is 60-evdev.rules. It checks the 60-evdev.hwdb for matching entries [1], then invokes the udev-builtin-keyboard if any matching entries are found. That builtin parses the udev properties assigned by the hwdb and converts them into EVIOCSABS ioctl calls. These three pieces need to agree on each other's formats - the udev rule and hwdb agree on the matches and the hwdb and the builtin agree on the property names and value format.

By itself, the hwdb itself has no specific format beyond this:

some-match-that-identifies-a-device
 PROPERTY_NAME=value
 OTHER_NAME=othervalue
But since we want to match for specific use-cases, our udev rule assembles several specific match lines. Have a look at 60-evdev.rules again, the last rule in there assembles a string in the form of "evdev:name:the device name:content of /sys/class/dmi/id/modalias". So your hwdb entry could look like this:
evdev:name:My Touchpad Name:dmi:*svnDellInc*
 EVDEV_ABS_00=0:1:3
If the name matches and you're on a Dell system, the device gets the EVDEV_ABS_00 property assigned. The "evdev:" prefix in the match line is merely to distinguish from other match rules to avoid false positives. It can be anything, libinput unsurprisingly used "libinput:" for its properties.

The last part now is understanding what EVDEV_ABS_00 means. It's a fixed string with the axis number as hex number - 0x00 is ABS_X. And the values afterwards are simply min, max, resolution, fuzz, flat, in that order. So the above example would set min/max to 0:1 and resolution to 3 (not very useful, I admit).

Trailing bits can be skipped altogether and bits that don't need overriding can be skipped as well provided the colons are in place. So the common use-case of overriding a touchpad's x/y resolution looks like this:

evdev:name:My Touchpad Name:dmi:*svnDellInc*
 EVDEV_ABS_00=::30
 EVDEV_ABS_01=::20
 EVDEV_ABS_35=::30
 EVDEV_ABS_36=::20 
0x00 and 0x01 are ABS_X and ABS_Y, so we're setting those to 30 units/mm and 20 units/mm, respectively. And if the device is multitouch capable we also need to set ABS_MT_POSITION_X and ABS_MT_POSITION_Y to the same resolution values. The min/max ranges for all axes are left as-is.

The most confusing part is usually: the hwdb uses a binary database that needs updating whenever the hwdb entries change. A call to systemd-hwdb update does that job.

So with all the pieces in place, let's see what happens when the kernel tells udev about the device:

  • The udev rule assembles a match and calls out to the hwdb,
  • The hwdb applies udev properties where applicable and returns success,
  • The udev rule calls the udev keyboard-builtin
  • The keyboard builtin parses the EVDEV_ABS_xx properties and issues an EVIOCSABS ioctl for each axis,
  • The kernel updates the in-kernel description of the device accordingly
  • The udev rule finishes and udev sends out the "device added" notification
  • The userspace process sees the "device added" and opens the device which now has corrected values
  • Celebratory champagne corks are popping everywhere, hands are shaken, shoulders are patted in congratulations of another device saved from the tyranny of wrong axis ranges/resolutions

Once you understand how the various bits fit together it should be quite easy to understand what happens. Then the remainder is just adding hwdb entries where necessary but the touchpad-edge-detector tool is useful for figuring those out.

[1] Not technically correct, the udev rule merely calls the hwdb builtin which searches through all hwdb entries. It doesn't matter which file the entries are in.

Wednesday, August 1, 2018

A Fedora COPR for libinput git master

To make testing libinput git master easier, I set up a whot/libinput-git Fedora COPR yesterday. This repo gets the push triggers directly from GitLab so it will rebuild with whatever is currently on git master.

To use the COPR, simply run:

sudo dnf copr enable whot/libinput-git
sudo dnf upgrade libinput
This will give you the libinput package from git. It'll have a date/time/git sha based NVR, e.g. libinput-1.11.901-201807310551git22faa97.fc28.x86_64. Easy to spot at least.

To revert back to the regular Fedora package run:

sudo dnf copr disable whot/libinput-git
sudo dnf distro-sync "libinput-*" 

Disclaimer: This is an automated build so not every package is tested. I'm running git master exclusively (from a a ninja install) and I don't push to master unless the test suite succeeds. So the risk for ending up with a broken system is low.

On that note: if you are maintaining a similar repo for other distributions and would like me to add a push trigger in GitLab for automatic rebuilds, let me know.